Time: 34 minutes.
PWB Tooling and Registration

Explains each of the processes that utilize registration during printed board fabrication and most of the common handling errors that can create misregistration during artwork layout, tooling, drilling, imaging, solder mask, and profiling.  Additional subjects include datum systems for both slots and holes, artwork compensation and verification, also minimum annular ring.  A complete understanding of the concepts of registration will enable your operators to help prevent those defects that result from the cumulate effects of handling errors and tolerance buildups.

Time: 13 minutes.
PWB Drilling

Explores the mechanics of the drilling process starting with tooling, entry and back-up materials, how to spot drill wear and identify the defects caused by drilling double-sided, copper-clad laminate: external burns, nailheads and epoxy-resin smear.  Provides a general overview of programming to give the operator an understanding of CNC drilling equipment.  Also explains the importance of proper drill feed and speed rates to minimize heat and maximize throughput.  The care and handling of drill bits is emphasized as well as checks for misregistration and missing holes.

Time: 18 minutes.
PWB Imaging — Dry-Film

Explains the basic steps in the dry-film imaging process: precleaning, lamination, exposure and development, how boards are scrubbed and cleaned, how oxidation is minimized and why this is important.  Operators are trained to look for physical defects that prevent dry-film adhesion, such as: fingerprints, scratches, and other surface contamination.  The importance of proper handling procedures is emphasized.  Also demonstrates proper treatment of the photoresist after lamination and why ragged trimming of dry film edges can cause problems in the imaging process.  Panel-to-film alignment, and the proper inspection of phototools before development are two more ways that operators can prevent costly errors.

Time: 16 minutes.
PWB Inspection: It’s Everyone’s Job

Reviews each process in the PWB manufacturing cycle, and examines the common defects that occur during each process.  Over 60 major defects are illustrated in a thoughtful and entertaining format.  Designed to emphasize the individual operator’s responsibility to recognize and prevent problems before they reach final inspection.

Time: 15 minutes
Solder Mask: Screen Print

Review the fundamental concepts of screen making, direct and indirect image application, surface preparation, screen printing, adjustment of off-contact and squeegee pressure, and both thermal and UV curing. Also covers solder mask over bare copper. Visual examples of potential defects are examined for their effects on board quality during further processing. Proper handling procedures are demonstrated, and associated safety, quality assurance and testing procedures are also reviewed.

Time: 42 minutes
Innerlayer Handling Series, Part 4: Imaging

Videotape #1 analyzes the theory of the print & etch innerlayer imaging operation and provides an overview of each of the processing steps in typical multilayer fabrication.  Explains diazo and silver halide phototools, various tooling arrangements, light collimation and defection, image enlargement, integrator theory, and the step tablet calibration process.  Videotape #2 covers standard operating procedures, the importance of cleanliness and air filtration, the effects of dust and other airborne contaminants, protective clothing, fingerprint contamination, resist particles, preventive cleaning techniques, static problems and ionization theory, wear and tear on phototools and tooling holes, scratches in exposure surfaces, and the function of the cover sheet.

Time: 29 minutes.
Final Bare Board Electrical Testing

A visual overview of the principles of final electrical testing for printed circuit boards including: process description for Bed of Nails and Flying Probe systems; electrical continuity; resistance/ohms; IS and SH shorts; OP and RO faults; capacitance testing; lot learn/lot comparison (golden board); net-list testing; alignment features; adapters; probe strikes/damage; fault codes; defect analysis systems including head’s up display, camera systems and combinations; and an overview of conductor and solder mask repair procedures.  An easy way to introduce this relatively complex process for new-hires and cross training.  Includes Leader’s Guide and Student Workbook.

Time: 6.5 hours (Totally 4 Videotapes)
PWB Drilling

Fabricating Advanced PWB’s Using Build Up Technologies
A four videotape workshop series presented by Happy Holden, Director of Strategic Technology for Merix Corp.  Explores 16 advanced technologies to create high performance build up multilayers.  Course contents include: Build Up Multilayers Today; Plasma Produced uVias for PWB’s; Laser uVia PWB’s; Photo Dielectric uVia PWB’s; Chemical and Mechanically Produced Microvias; Solid Paste Microvia PWB’s; Shaped Based PWB Routers; Expert Advice for Design; Productivity Audit Software; Selection of Design Rules; DFM Predictions; and Issues for Advancement.  Additional presentations by Mark Owen, ESI Corp. and Ivan Ho, Ciba Geigy.  Workshop recorded at PC EXPO, March 1997.  Includes printed Handbook containing images / notes presented in the video.

ESI Laser Drilling System – Model 5100

The autoloader for the ESI Model 5100 Laser Via Drilling System is designed to provide high-speed panel loading and unloading capability, with  flexibility to handle a wide varity of constructions and panel sizes.  It can be added to an existing Model 5100 with the absolute minimum increase in the factory floor space required.  In conjunction with the automatic alignment and programmable focus height system options, the autoloader permits complete production automation.

ESI Laser Drilling System – Model 5200

ESI’s Model 5200 Laser  Via Drill is the premier choice for high-quality micro-vias in small geometry circuit boards and electronic packages.  The diode-pumped laser offers superior reliability and ease-of-use.  The system requires only a low power single phase line input, and no water or gas supplies.  The result is easy installation and low running costs.  The Model 5200 produces vias that require no additional copper etching steps and are ready for plating.  It can produce over 20,000 vias per minute in single-layer laminated materials up to 21″ x 25″ – and these are continuous rates, not burst rate between time consuming beam stepping.  The short wavelength and low average power of the laser won’t burn organic board materials and leaves no cabron residue, making extra cleaning steps unnecessary.
The System can drill through top copper and stop on inner layer copper pads, eliminating the need for pre-etching.  The Model 5200 can be used on all materials currently used in the PWB industry.  Pull-down menus and a point-and-click interface make setup and operation easy.  The Model 5200 represents the state-of-the-art in micro-via formation.

Time: 1hour 37 minutes
Microvias and High Density Interconnects

To maximize the benefit of miniature IC packaging, the user must consider efficient and cost effective use of the circuit board fabrication technology available today, as well as looking ahead to emerging technologies.  Multilayer circuits using via-in-land or ‘microvia’ methodology provide the designer direct access to higher circuit density on the subsurface layers of the circuit structure.  Three alternative microvia interconnect methods are currently in use: laser, photo-defined and plasma-displacement.  Detailed information and design guidelines that are specific to each of the microvia technologies noted above are discussed.  In addition, examples of fine-pitch QFP, BGA, and CSP products are examined, circuit routing criteria defined and other issues related to adapting miniature IC device packaging and high density circuits are reviewed.  Also covers drivers for product miniaturization, base material selection for HDI, IC component packaging, planning for high density circuits, panelization for assembly efficiency, and sources for HDI and cost considerations.

A Technology Transfer Programme for Drilling and Imaging
Time: 7 minutes

An introduction to the Printed Circuit Board Technology Unit

Guide to Basic PCB Manufacture
Time: 20 minutes
Time: 20 minutes
Electroless Copper Deposition

A complete overview of the process – from manual systems to automatic – explaining each of the baths: cleaner, conditioner, microetch, predip, activator, acid dip, electroless, anti-tarnish, and forced-air drying. Also covers safety requirements and incoming inspection criteria, potential problems, filter and bath maintenance additions, rinse efficiency (both stagnant and cascade), agitation, heaters, drip time and drag-out, and waste treatment. Stresses the importance of controlling chemical concerntration, dwell time, temperature, and pH. Concludes with a visual review of final inpsection criteria, and laboratory analysis for thickness measurement, rate panel analysis, porosity, evenness, and defect samples.

Time: 11 minutes

Reviews the fundamentals of both copper and tin / lead pattern-plating. Provides visual examples of potential problems and explains their effects on board quality during futher processing. Also covers basic equipment (manual and automatic), system upkeep, safety requirements, and associated quality assurance and testing procedures.

Time: 16 minutes

Explores the mechanics of the drilling process starting with tooling, entry and back-up materials, how to spot drill wear and identify the defects caused by drilling double-sided, copper-clad laminate: external burns, nailheads and epoxy-resin smear.  Provides a general overview of programming to give the operator an understanding of CNC drilling equipment.  Also explains the importance of proper drill feed and speed rates to minimize heat and maximize throughput.  The care and handling of drill bits is emphasized as well as checks for misregistration and missing holes.

Time: 11 minutes
Edge-Board Contact Plating

Explains the tab plating operation from taping to inspection. Setup and adjustment, chemical concentrations, conveyor speed, rectifier controls, plating thickness, nickel underplate, gold adherence and reclamation, cleaning, tape testing, safety considerations, as well as an overview of the physics and chemistry of the plating operation, are all explored in an easy to understand format.


Time: 12 minutes

Review each of the extensive tests for laminate integrity. Provides visual examples of laminate defects and explains their effects on board quality during further processing. Also demonstrates how to avoid demage to the laminate caused by improper handling.


Seminar on New Manufacturing Technologies for Electronics Miniaturization (25 January 2003)

Time: 2 hours 35 minutes

“Ionic Migration” (also known as electrochemical migration) refers to a phenomenon in which metal ions are transferred from one metal electrode to the opposite metal electrode. This process results in metal or alloy deposits. The transfer occurs between the electrodes of devices such as Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) when an electric field is applied in the presence of moisture and dew condensation between the electrodes.
Migration is classified as either dendrite or Conductive Anodic Filament (CAF) depending on the shape of the deposits and the conditions leading to the occurrence. “Dendrite” refers to dendritic-shaped metal or metal-oxide deposits on the surface of PCB insulation. “CAF” refers to metal or metal-oxide deposits in the shape of elongated fibers deposited along the glass fibers of the interior of the PCB insulation panel.
There are three processes leading to migration: (1) anodic reaction (metal dissolution), (2) cathodic reaction (metal-oxide deposits), and (3) inter-electrode reaction (metal oxide deposits). Reactions (1) and (2) are mechanisms leading to dendrite formation. Metal dissolving at the anode (positive electrode) is deposited on the cathode (negative electrode). These dendrites consist of pure metal or metal oxide deposits growing toward the cathode, and result in short circuits between the electrodes. Reactions (1), (2), and (3) are all thought to be mechanisms leading to CAF formation. Metal dissolving at the anode results in metal or metal -oxide deposits between the electrodes and the growth of these deposits results in short circuits between the electrodes. The speed of growth is affected greatly by the characteristics of the materials.
In this seminar, the ionic migration generation process and the reliability test method of copper and solder alloys on PCBs will be explained.



Time: 28 minutes

PWB Drilling

Introduces each of the manufacturing processes for flex circuits, including single-sided, double-sided, and multilayer fabrication. Action photography and computer graphics visually demonstrate each process step, including roll processing. Also illustrates the uses and advantages of flex circuits. Includes Leader’s Guide and Student Workbook..